Büro für Altlastenerkundung und Umweltforschung

Dr. Rainer Haas

Stadtwaldstr. 45a, D-35037 Marburg, Tel.: 06421/93084, Fax: 06421/93073

email: haasr@gmx.net

Scope of activities

Since the middle of the 1980s, research on former munitions factories in Marburg has been carried out. Our office works very closely with the Department of Chemistry of the Philipps University of Marburg and the Centre for Hygene and Medical Microbiology of the Department of Human Medicine, in particular environmental hygiene.

Apart from the survey and estimation of damage arising from former munitions plants, we also completed historical research, aerial surveys, planning and collecting of samples from water and soil with subsequent chemical analysis and finally the toxiological estimations.

Special problems which could not be deal with in the framework of damage estimation were researched by graduate students of the Philipps University, with unofficial assistance by members of our office. From this further research came numerous scientific publications. Those which gained scientific recognition were published in Abfallwirtschaft in Forschung und Praxis, Vol. 55.

The primary thematic emphasis of our work pertains to the analysis of explosives, chemical warfare agents and their chemical byproducts. Nevertheless we have also carried out work on a gas plant and solid waste disposal areas.

In cooperation with the Biolabor Trauen we can analyze and research nearly all relevant chemical warfare agents and their byproducts. Furthermore, we can undertake bacteriological and eco-toxicological research, including AMES-Test.

Through our research of former munitions plants, we have developed flexible responses to unforeseen problems. Apart from field tests of samples, information arising from chemical analysis can be further evalued and the contractor informed of any additional analysis and information, such as the qualitative analysis of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and PCN (polychlorinated naphthalines) evaluated through research of nitroaromatics. I have developed a field tests for detecting TNT and other nitroaromatic compounds, which is now used extensively in Germany during sampling of former munitions plants.

We have conducted research and analysis of the following former munitions plants.

- Bobingen, Werk Fasan, Bayern; RDX production WW II

- Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Werk Tanne, Niedersachsen; TNT production and filling station WW II

- Cuxhafen, Fort Kugelbake; ammunition depot

- Dethlinger Teich, Niedersachsen; dumping of CWA ammunition after WW II

- Dörverden, Werk Weser, Niedersachsen; production of propellants and CWA ammunition (sternutators) WW II

- Empelde near Hannover, Niedersachsen; toxicological study of explosives

- Frankenberg, Hessen; ammunition depot WW II, sternutators

- Geretsried, Bayern; explosive production and filling station WW II

- Hallschlag, Rheinland-Pfalz; ammunition depot WW I, explosives and sternutators

- Herzberg/Harz, Niedersachsen; ammunition depot WW II, explosives

- Ilmenau, Thüringen; two ammunition depots WW II, explosives

- Leese, Niedersachsen; sternutators

- North Sea, munitions dumping areas after WW II, explosives

- Schimmerwald, Niedersachsen; ammunition depot WW II, explosives

- Stade, Grauer Ort, Niedersachsen; ammunition depot WW II and munition destruction after WW II

- Stadtallendorf, Hessen; TNT production and filling station WW II

We have completed historical surveys of the following areas: Bobingen, Dragahn, Leese, Liebenau, Stadtallendorf.

Under contract from the Federal German Department of the Environment, we contributed to the project "Erfassung von Verdachtsstandorten von Rüstungsaltlasten in Deutschland" and "Branchentypische Inventarisierung von Bodenkontaminationen auf Rüstungsaltlaststandorten".

Our office carried out the analytical quality control for the BMBF project "Mikrobiologische Sanierung "Werk Tanne", Clausthal-Zellerfeld".

We have developed specific analytical methods for the determination of aromatic amines (metabolites of explosives and pesticides) and also for chemical warfare agents, their metabolites and byproducts (sternutators, S-LOST).

In conjunction with a Berlin company, we have developed a method for the photolytic degredation of explosives and related compounds.

In cooperation with other institutions our actual research and development activities are:

* enzymatic degradation of arsenoorganic compounds with manganese peroxidase; Univ. Jena, JenaBios GmbH

* filter materials for the elimination of arsenic and metals from water; gm-Ingenieurbüro

* analysis of chemial warfare agents and related compounds (Biolabor Trauen with Hazard Control GmbH, Faßberg).

Dr. R. Haas is the owner of the company gaiasafe Ltd., we developed passive collectors for water investigation. This passive collectors are in use in some perojects.

Dr. R. Haas works as chemist in russia in TACIS-Project ENVRUS 9802, destruction of the former chemical warfare agents facility in Dzherzhinsk, Nizhni Nowgorod region.

Our office posesses an extensive archive and library (published works, academic journals, subject dictionaries, government archives, etc.) pertaining to the area of former munitions, and also chemical, medical and toxiological subject material.

Through close cooperation and work with scientists and academics in various fields (chemistry, biology, geoscience, toxicology and medicine), we are able to expertly deal with complicated matters and duties.

Dr. R. Haas

Get more informations via email (haasr@gmx.net).

Biolabor Trauen

Working group cwa analysis

Hazard Control GmbH, Versuchsfeld Trauen, D-29328 Faßberg

Dipl. Ing. Alfred Krippendorf, email: Hazard.Control.GmbH@t-online.de

Büro für Altlastenerkundung und Umweltforschung, Stadtwaldstr. 45a,

D-35037 Marburg

Dr. Rainer Haas, email: haasr@gmx.net

Analytical examination of arsenical chemical warfare agents

Arsenic-containing CWA as phenylarsines, alkylarsines and chlorovinylarsines can chemicaly degrade under certain environmental conditions.

The chemical behaviour eg of the phenylarsines and diphenylarsines is influenced by several factors:

1) The phenyl-arsenic bonding is very stable. The phenylarsine and the diphenylarsine sections remain unchanged and only under extreme conditions are these sections destroyed.

2) Phenylarsines and diphenylarsines are oxidized by oxidants to phenylarsons and diphenylarsons respectively. In the presence of water, phenylarsonic acid and diphenylsonic acid arise respectively.

3) Chloride and cyanide are easily disposed of. Substitution reactions can occur under mild conditions, but these reactions are ocassionally incomplete. A pH value dependent equilibrium can arise.

Triphenylarsine is relatively stable under environmental conditions, triphyenylarsine oxide can arise through oxidation.

It is absolutely necessary that through the examination of water and soil samples, that apart from the original substances, the degredation products are also analyzed. Some of these degredation products can be not be detected by HPLC or GC, and so examination after derivatization with mercaptanes and dimercaptanes is necessary.

Furthermore, the recognition and consideration of degredation reactions is necessary during the preparation of the sample and the chemical-analytical examination, eg: the reaction of diphenylarsine chloride and cyanide with methanol (product: diphenylarsine methylether).

Through the kinetic examination of important chemical, biochemical and eco-toxiological model reactions, important information pertaining to the reaction conditions of the phenylarsines and diphenylarsines can be gained. Regarding questions of the stability or reactivity of phenylarsines and diphenylarsines in various organic solutions, we have undertaken long-term studies.

The following methods for the quantitative examination of phenylarsines, alkylarsines and chlorovinylarsines (LEWISITE) were developed and can be utilized with the consideration of their reactivity.

* quantitative examination of phenylarsine dichloride (PFIFFIKUS), diphenylarsine chloride (CLARK I), diphenylarsine cyanide (CLARK II), ethylarsine dichloride, bis(2-chlorovinyl)chloroarsine (LEWISITE II) and tris(2-chlorovinyl)arsine (LEWISITE III);

method: GC/ECD (electron capture detector) and/or GC/FID (flame ionisation detector)

* quantitative examination of phenylarsines (sum after hydrolysis), diphenylarsines (sum after hydrolysis), phenarsazine chloride (ADAMSIT, after Hydrolysis), triphenylarsine, triphenylarsine oxide, phenyl arsonic acid, diphenyl arsonic acid, ethylarsines (sum after hydrolysis), LEWISITE I, LEWISITE II and LEWISTTE III;

method: HPLC/DAD (diode array detector)

* quantitative examination of phenylarsines, diphenylarsines, ethylarsines, LEWISITE I and LEWISITE III and their oxidation and hydrolysis products after derivatization with mercaptanes and dimercaptanes;

method: GC/ECD

* quantitative examination of sulfur mustard, oxygen mustard, sesquimustard and their degradation products;

method: GC/MS

* identification with GC/MS or HPLC/MS (mass spectrometry).

Various substances for the derivatization of the phenylarsenic compounds are avilable, and so disturbances arising from the matrix can be eliminated.

Dr. Rainer Haas, Dipl. Ing. Alfred Krippendorf

Get more informations via email (haasr@gmx.net) and (Hazard.Control.GmbH@t-online.de).